THIS BOOK SUMMARIZES, for a general audience, decades of research on the positive aspects of human experience—joy, creativity, the process of total. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience and millions of other books are available for site site. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (Harper Perennial Modern Classics) Paperback – July 1, Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's famous investigations of "optimal. Mar 13, In his seminal work, “Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience”, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi argues the Here is a free sample, in PDF format.
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Jul 20, PDF | On Jan 1, , Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and others published Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. FLOW: The. Psychology of. Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Harper and Row, More than anything else, men and women seek happiness. Feb 25, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology. The Collected Works of Mihaly. Csikszentmihalyi.
My Note: I only partially agree with this one. In the end, this is a major over-simplification. The moment I forced myself to change the attitude I became happier and more effective. Always remind yourself that you have a choice.
Here are the main ones: Flimsy connection between flow and happiness? Flow is not easily applicable to all realms of life Some activities, like team activities, are more easily conducive to flow.
Flow Summary & Review
And some activities, by presenting immediate and obvious feedback, are also more conducive to flow. That also means that some other activities are not as easily conducive to flow. And personally, I found some recommendations to reach flow anytime and anywhere borderline ridiculous.
And even eating can be seen as a skill or, as well, as an art. Slowing down to enjoy it for longer for example, or chewing better which will help you digest better. Why should you do anything without expecting something else? I am writing this summary because I expect it will be helpful to people reading it. Because these questions are open-ended, the answers need to be coded by researchers. This needs to be done carefully so as to avoid any biases in the statistical analysis.
The scaled items are intended to measure the levels of a variety of subjective feelings that the individual may be experiencing. The ESM is more complex than the FQ and contributes to the understanding of how flow plays out in a variety of situations, however the possible biases make it a risky choice.
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Jackson and Eklund created two scales that have been proven to be psychometrically valid and reliable: the Flow State Scale-2 which measures flow as a state and the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 designed to measure flow as either a general trait or domain-specific trait.
The statistical analysis of the individual results from these scales gives a much more complete understanding of flow than the ESM and the FQ. This adds direction and structure to the task. This helps the person negotiate any changing demands and allows them to adjust their performance to maintain the flow state.
One must have confidence in one's ability to complete the task at hand. Thus, a perceived fit of skills and task demands can be identified as the central precondition of flow experiences. This graph illustrates one further aspect of flow: it is more likely to occur when the activity at hand is a higher-than-average challenge above the center point and the individual has above-average skills to the right of the center point.
The further from the center an experience is, the greater the intensity of that state of being whether it is flow or anxiety or boredom or relaxation. Individuals with a low average level of skills and a high average level of challenges or the other way round do not necessarily experience a fit between skills and challenges when both are above their individual average. Knowing how to do it. Knowing how well you are doing. Knowing where to go if navigation is involved.
High perceived challenges. High perceived skills. Freedom from distractions. Schaffer also published a measure, the Flow Condition Questionnaire FCQ , to measure each of these 7 flow conditions for any given task or activity. Being in a state of apathy is characterized when challenges are low and one's skill level is low producing a general lack of interest in the task at hand. Boredom is a slightly different state in that it occurs when challenges are low, but one's skill level exceeds those challenges causing one to seek higher challenges.
Lastly, a state of anxiety occurs when challenges are so high that they exceed one's perceived skill level causing one great distress and uneasiness. These states in general differ from being in a state of flow, in that flow occurs when challenges match one's skill level. If challenges are too great, one can return to the flow state by learning new skills. These personality traits include curiosity, persistence, low self-centeredness, and a high rate of performing activities for intrinsic reasons only.
People with most of these personality traits are said to have an autotelic personality. Being Autotelic means having a self-contained activity, one that is done not with the expectation of some future benefit, but simply to experience it as the main goal.
One researcher Abuhamdeh, found that people with an autotelic personality have a greater preference for "high-action-opportunity, high-skills situations that stimulate them and encourage growth" compared to those without an autotelic personality. Experimental evidence shows that a balance between skills of the individual and demands of the task compared to boredom and overload only elicits flow experiences in individuals characterized by an internal locus of control  or a habitual action orientation.
Group flow is attainable when the performance unit is a group, such as a team or musical group. When groups cooperate to agree on goals and patterns, social flow, commonly known as group cohesion, is much more likely to occur.
If a group still has not entered flow, a team-level challenge may stimulate the group to harmonize. His work has also informed the measurement of donor momentum by The New Science of Philanthropy.
Education[ edit ] Young child, painting a model In education , the concept of overlearning plays a role in a student's ability to achieve flow.
Csikszentmihalyi’s Book 'Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience'
Challenging assignments that slightly stretch one's skills lead to flow. The machine is discussed in some detail in Stafford Beer's book "Cybernetics and Management". If the data given indicates too precisely what responses the operator is required to make, the skill becomes too easy to perform and the operator again tends to become bored.
If the data given is too complicated or is given at too great a rate, the operator is unable to deal with it. He is then liable to become discouraged and lose interest in performing or learning the skill. Ideally, for an operator to perform a skill efficiently, the data presented to him should always be of sufficient complexity to maintain his interest and maintain a competitive situation, but not so complex as to discourage the operator. Similarly these conditions should obtain at each stage of a learning process if it is to be efficient.
A tutor teaching one pupil seeks to maintain just these conditions. The research supported observations that students achieved flow experiences more frequently in Montessori settings.
In a study performed with professional classical pianists who played piano pieces several times to induce a flow state, a significant relationship was found between the flow state of the pianist and the pianist's heart rate, blood pressure, and major facial muscles.
As the pianist entered the flow state, heart rate and blood pressure decreased and the major facial muscles relaxed. This study further emphasized that flow is a state of effortless attention.
In spite of the effortless attention and overall relaxation of the body, the performance of the pianist during the flow state improved. Likewise drummers and bass guitarists often describe a state of flow when they are feeling the downbeat together as being in the pocket.
Many athletes describe the effortless nature of their performance while achieving personal bests. Suddenly I was nearly two seconds faster than anybody else, including my team mate with the same car. And suddenly I realised that I was no longer driving the car consciously.
I was driving it by a kind of instinct, only I was in a different dimension. It was like I was in a tunnel.
It was kind of a remote control and it's the weirdest thing I've ever had in my life. For millennia, practitioners of Eastern religions such as Hinduism , Buddhism , Taoism and later in Islamic Sufism have honed the discipline of overcoming the duality of self and object as a central feature of spiritual development.
Eastern spiritual practitioners have developed a very thorough and holistic set of theories around overcoming duality of self and object, tested and refined through spiritual practice instead of the systematic rigor and controls of modern science. In yogic traditions such as Raja Yoga , reference is made to a state of flow  in the practice of Samyama , a psychological absorption in the object of meditation.
In Sufi Islam , the first mental state that precedes human action is known as jila al-khatir, which roughly translates to 'cleansing the heart'. The condition of feedback, required for flow, is associated with the feedback aspects of the Law of Exercise.
This is exhibited in well designed games, in particular, where players perform at the edge of their competency as they are guided by clear goals and feedback. The intense experiences of being in a state of flow are directly associated with the Law of Intensity.
Thus, the experience of gaming can be so engaging and motivating as it meets many of the Laws of Learning, which are inextricably connected to creating flow. In games often much can be achieved thematically through an imbalance between challenge level and skill level.An autotelic personality can enable individuals to effectively manage even the most impossible and traumatic experiences.
When there is little communication of feedback, an employee may not be assigned tasks that challenge them or seem important, which could potentially prevent an opportunity for flow.
Find new solutions to the stressors in your life Being confident in your skills will only lead you so far. Print edition download must be sold by site. In time, this will lead to boredom, anxiety , or other negative emotional states Hasty Reader, Firstly, it is caused by lack of challenge in a task.
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