The Lexical Approach - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. By Michael Lewis. His main current interests lie in the areas of grammar, vocabulary and the development of a lexical approach and appropriate teacher-friendly classroom. The lexical approach to second language teaching has re- ceived interest in recent years as an alternative to grammar- based approaches. The lexical approach.
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PDF | On Jan 1, , John P. Racine and others published Lexical Method. Within a lexical approach, language is considered to. comprise. BiBlid () p. Recibido: 02/08/ · Aceptado: 26/09/ The lexical approach: collocability, fluency and implications for teaching. The theory of lexical chunks is popular for college English teachers to adopt in their classes. Based on theories of lexical chunks and lexical approach, this paper.
Faucet, L. London: P. Lewis, Michael, ed. Lewis, Michael The Lexical Approach.
Ogden, C. Sinclair, B. Materials design for the promotion of learner autonomy: how explicit is explicit?
The Lexical Approach
Pemberton, S. Edward, W. Or, and H. Pierson Eds. Taking Control: Autonomy in Language Learning. West, M. Bilingualism With Special Reference to Bengal. Calcutta: Bureau of Education, India.
One unit here is designed as an example. There are three stages, that is, lead-in stage, text-analysis stage and conclusion stage to present the teaching details of lexical approach. Lead-in stage This stage can be considered as the first or introductory part of a new unit learning. In this stage, activities like video play, pictures appreciation, warm-up questions can be adopted to motivate students to give their speech practice as many as possible.
Under the help of multimedia techniques, students can quickly enter the context with visual and audio background. Attention can be aroused for students to think and memorize what they receive from video. For example, when coming to unit two, teachers first shows students a famous speech given by Al Gore, former president of the USA, who depicts the problem of environment and the solution.
After the video play, students are asked to recall what words or phrases they has attained from it and teachers guides them to use lexical chunks to talk about the topic and give their own ideas afterward. Meanwhile, the key words in the form of lexical chunks are listed on blackboard by teachers to emphasize. Pictures like cartoons, photos can be displayed in front of students to encourage them to express as much as possible.
After the discussion, the teacher makes a conclusion during which lexical chunks are stressed again and previous mistakes are corrected. Finally, the teacher gives a conclusion to arrange the mentioned chunks into a summary and meanwhile required students to repeat. Questions relevant to the topic are first given and students are asked to think for a while with good arrangements of words and phrases to present their ideas. Free discussions are encouraged so students could have a sense of what lexical chunks are needed.
As for some questions with difficulty, cues could be given in form of lexical chunks to students for highlighting. Text-analysis Stage Reading materials in the text book bring good opportunities for students to get knowledge of and then take advantage of those lexical chunks. When coming to the first time text reading, students first are taught to identify lexical chunks. Polywords and collocations should be trained to identify.
These are helpful marks for better comprehension. A great number of lexical chunks have one thing in common, that is, they show the regular co-occurrence of words in a specific form and order, so much so that the presence of one sets up an expectancy of the other Chitra Fernando, In addition, sentence frames help to make a distinction of writing style. After students become aware of such lexical chunks, they are required to make good use of them.
Several strategies can be applied during text-analysis. Paraphrasing is an effective method to encourage students to interpret sentences by other patterns with the same meaning so that they can reorganize sentences structure with the lexical chunks and recall other chunks they have learnt to make a substitution. Translation job is also frequently used in text-analysis, which asks students to divide sentences into several patterns, find the corresponding Chinese patterns and reorganize them to Chinese expressions.
Conclusion Stage After analyzing text in detail, the last stage is to make an end of one unit including activities such as summary, review, writing, exercises finishing. Previously students are taught to meet new lexical chunks and how to deal with them, while during this stage students are supposed to grasp how to make use of them in accuracy and fluency. Students could be put into several teams to make a discussion if the text-retelling was beyond one student.
Students could take a note as well to help them remind those chunks. The writer in the beginning pointes out problems on environment and then introduced the specific problems taken place in countries around the world.
When student ends up his speech, teacher could proceed relevant questions for further discussion or students are encouraged to make a dialogue as a role-play. What other environmental problems have you heard? In China, what problems happened?
Besides environmental problems, what else do you think is the most emergent problem for us to notice? Teacher can find some relevant scripts or listening materials for students to evaluate their retention quality.
Through repetition for times, students tend to raise their consciousnesses on lexis study and bear the lexical chunks in mind. Students are asked to write down a paragraph or a short passage to give a comment of one unit.
In this way, master of lexical chunks can be examined and students are inspired to have an attempt to utilize new lexical chunks which of course would be checked by teacher. After the topic study and relevant chunks have been instructed and repeated to them, the writing task is set to test their mastery of chunks. Exercises attach to the textbook provide good opportunity to practice the lexical chunks presented in the unit.
Each exercise is designed to train in different aspects such as collocations, sentence structures, etc, which are pertinent to the topic. For example, in unit two on environmental protection, exercises IV is designed to train identification of collocation through the way of correction.
By means of correction, the exercise displays both the frequent mistakes students conduct and the correct forms of lexical chunks so as to leave a deep impression and stimulate their memory. Besides, the exercise provides synonyms of those lexical chunks to make an enlargement for students. Strategies introduced above are the main strategies used in each unit practical teaching. In fact, there may be overlapping or interrelationship among them.
It is worth mentioning that not every strategy is essential to each unit teaching. Helpful methods are welcomed to help students recognize the characteristics of chunks and finally make progress in College English classes. Few were aware of learning collocations and expressions and there was no possibility for them to apply systematic lexis learning strategies. However, after practices of chunk identification and usage, students become more confident in English learning.
Documents Similar To The Lexical Approach
So the lexical approach asks for our notice of the feature of grammaticalised lexis. Grammar in a language represents the generative system while vocabulary stands for the stock of fixed non-generative words. Thus, it is acknowledged that sentence patterns consist of subject, predicate, object and other complements sometimes.
To make utterances, tenses, clauses and other generative items are given great awareness. Vocabulary is used to recite as individual word which brings memory work even to overload.
The traditionally developed dichotomy between the generalizable quality of grammar and the apparently arbitrary nature of individual vocabulary items does no good to language learners Lewis, Lexis Teaching Principles Sample exercises and teaching activities are also given by Lewis He states 10 principles on class of lexis teaching. Teachers must bear in mind the lexical items and put them under a topic framework.
Physical situation should be taken into consideration as the most appropriate way to organize lexicon. It presents the main feature of lexis in a language. When under certain event, particular words or phrases are used to describe certain psychological unity. This will help learners be more familiar with formulaic expressions so as to take less effort to give utterances. Among these principles, collocation is a factor which is weighed much by Lewis. Collocation is defined as the readily observable phenomenon whereby certain words co-occur in actual text with greater than random frequency Lewis, Collocations are most discovered in form of verb-noun and adjective-noun, and they can be extended to word groups larger than pairs.
Noticing collocations is a central pedagogical activity. Learners tend to produce language accurately and fluently for focusing on chunks usage instead of grouping single word. Thus, teachers shall undertake the task to introduce theory of lexical chunks to students.
Besides, the nature of lexical chunks shall be recognized in order to enhance the self-evaluation for students. Though applying lexical-chunk approach in classroom instruction is a new concept, it is no doubt a new teaching methodology that cannot be neglected.
Teachers are expected to employ various strategies to bring more opportunities of chunks acquisition. This teaching attempt results can enlighten us to develop further in lexical chunks study and some helpful teaching strategies are expected to make an improvement on College English teaching and textbook selection. In the future more objective research can be designed to study the lexical approach.
The phrasal lexicon. Bolt Beranek and Newman Report, No. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Longman, Meaning and Memory. Forum Linguisticum, 1, Idioms and Idiomaticity. Oxford University Press, Text, 20, A Dictionary of English Collocations.
The Lexical Approach: Language Teaching Publication, This will help learners be more familiar with formulaic expressions so as to take less effort to give utterances. Besides environmental problems, what else do you think is the most emergent problem for us to notice? Cambridge University Press.
Schmidt Eds. In fact, out of class students can be found anytime and anywhere taking a vocabulary booklet with them, especially in face of the coming of all sorts of tests.
Are our intuitions reliable? Deignan, A. One of the fathers of the Communicative Language Teaching Henry Widdowson advocated using lexical items as a starting point and then 'showing how they need to be grammatically modified to be communicatively effective. Readers familiar with The Lexical Approach may prefer to begin at Chapter 2, as this first chapter provides a brief summary of the central ideas of The Lexical Approach, together with some reactions to it.
It can therefore be presented as a chunk It might take a while without attending formally to all possible uses of might.
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